literal translation and free translataion[法语论文]

资料分类免费法语论文 责任编辑:黄豆豆更新时间:2017-05-08

But what kind of translation is literal translation? And what kind of translation is free translation?

For example:①
1) Don‘t lock the stable door after the hourses has been stolen.
Literal translation: 不要等马被盗后,才去锁楖门.
Free translation: 不要贼走关门.
2) Smashing a mirror is no way to make an ugly person beautiful, nor it is a way to make social problem evaporate.
Literal translation: 砸镜子不能使丑八怪变漂亮,也不能使社会问题烟消云散.
Free translation: 砸镜子并不能解决实际问题.
Form the example 1), free translation is better than literal translation. From the example 2), literal translation is better than free translation. But how to use literal translation and free translation? There is a sentence:"Translate literally,if possible, or appeal to free translation."

2. How to use literal translation properly?

2.1 Translate literally, if possible.

Why translate, if possible? What is the advantage of literal translation?
Generally, rhetoric is often used in a passage to make the passage lively. Literal translation retains the rhetoric of the original, so it is lively as the original. But free translation only expresses the general idea of original, lively rhetoric of the original disappeared. So generally speaking, literal translation is a good choice in translation.

For example:②
3) For ma father know and I know that if you only dig enough a pasture can be made free.
Literal translation: 因为我父亲知道,我也知道,只要挖到一定程度,早晚可以在这里辟出个牧场的.
Free translation: 因为我父亲知道,我也知道,功到自然成.
4) For Kino and Juana this was the meaning of morning of their lives, comparable only to the day when the baby had been born.
Literal translation: 在Kino和Juana看来,这是他们一生中最了不起的早晨,只有宝宝出生的那一天,才可以与之媲美.
Free translation: Kino和Juana以为,这一天非常重要.

Free translation of examples 3) and 4), only express the general idea of the original sentences. It is too simple. Metaphor and discribtion of the original sentences hava dissappeared. After free translation, it was inferior and dull. So it is undesirable. But the literal translation of example 3) and 4) is clearer than the free translation. Actually, literal translation is the chief way of translation. It is close to the original, lively and natural. It is acceptable. Acceptableness is very important in translation. From theory of translation angle, translation is a theroy which uses target language to express the idea, content and style of source language.It should accord with the culture and customs of the target language. Translation not only does express the idea and style of the original message, but also need to accord with the culture and customs of the target language, so that the translation can easy be accepted by target language readers. Because the differences of two languages, sometimes it is difficult to retain the idea and style of the source language. The advantage of literal translation is that almostly retain the idea and style of the original. So most of translators like to use literal translation.

From all above, that is the reason of "translate literally, if possible."

2.2 Literal translation≠word-for-word translation.
At first, which kind of translation is word-for-word translation? Word-for-word translation is that: When translating, consider every words. Every words of source language is translated cooridnatly.

For example:③
5) It was an old and ragged moon.
Word-for-word translation: 那是一个又老又破的月亮.
6) Many of his ideas are especially interesting to modern youth.
Word-for-word translation: 他的许多思想对当代青年特别有趣.
From the example 5) and 6), we know word-for-word translation does not do any changes to source language. The form is close to the original, but it does not express the meaning of the source language. Strictly speaking, it is not translation. Nevertheless, some translation which did some change to source language and the structure of target language is also the same as source language, the translation is smooth, but the meaning and the style are far from the original, usually, target language readers did not know what it said. This is also word-for-word translation.

For example: ④
7) Every atom of your flesh is as dear to me as my own: in pain and sickness it would still be dear.
Word-for-word translation: 你的肉中的每一个原子,对我来说,都像我自己一样亲;即使在病痛中,仍然是亲的.
8) Being a teacher is being present at the creation, when the clay begin to breathe.
Word-for-word translation: 当一名教师意味着是创造的见证人,他目睹人体开始呼吸,开始了生命.

Translation of 7) and 8) are smooth. But they do not accord with the expressive way of Chinese. It is word-for-word translation.